Article Abstract

Population attributable risks of cigarette smoking for deaths of all causes, all cancers and other chronic diseases among adults aged 40-74 years in urban Shanghai, China

Authors: Ying-Ying Wang,Wei Zhang,Hong-Lan Li,Jing Gao,Yu-Ting Tan,Yu-Tang Gao,Xiao-Ou Shu,Wei Zheng,Yong-Bing Xiang


Objective: To evaluate the population attributable risks (PARs) between cigarette smoking and deaths of all causes, all cancers, lung cancer and other chronic diseases in urban Shanghai.

Methods: In total, 61,480 men aged 40-74 years from 2002 to 2006 and 74,941 women aged 40-70 years from 1997 to 2000 were recruited to undergo baseline surveys in urban Shanghai, with response rates of 74.0% and 92.3%, respectively. A Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to estimate relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) of deaths associated with cigarette smoking. PARs and 95% CIs for deaths were estimated from smoking exposure rates and the estimated RRs.

Results: Cigarette smoking was responsible for 23.9% (95% CI: 19.4-28.3%) and 2.4% (95% CI: 1.6-3.2%) of all deaths in men and women, respectively, in our study population. Respiratory disease had the highest PAR in men [37.5% (95% CI: 21.5-51.6%)], followed by cancer [31.3% (95% CI: 24.6-37.7%)] and cardiovascular disease (CVD) [24.1% (95% CI: 16.7-31.2%)]. While the top three PARs were 12.7% (95% CI: 6.1-19.3%), 4.0% (95% CI: 2.4-5.6%), and 1.1% (95% CI: 0.0-2.3%), for respiratory disease, CVD, and cancer, respectively in women. For deaths of lung cancer, the PAR of smoking was 68.4% (95% CI: 58.2-76.5%) in men.

Conclusions: In urban Shanghai, 23.9% and 2.4% of all deaths in men and women could have been prevented if no people had smoked in the area. Effective control programs against cigarette smoking should be strongly advocated to reduce the increasing smoking-related death burden.