Article Abstract

Traps and trumps from adjacent-to-tumor samples in gastric cancer research

Authors: Paulo Pimentel de Assumpção, André Salim Khayat, Taíssa Maíra Thomaz Araújo, Williams Fernandes Barra, Geraldo Ishak, Aline Maria Pereira Cruz Ramos, Sidney Emanuel Batista dos Santos, Ândrea Kely Campos Ribeiro dos Santos, Samia Demachki, Paula Baraúna de Assumpção, Danielle Queiroz Calcagno, Ney Pereira Carneiro dos Santos, Mônica Baraúna de Assumpção, Fabiano Cordeiro Moreira, André Maurício Ribeiro dos Santos, Carolina Baraúna de Assumpção, Gregory Joseph Riggins, Rommel Mario Rodríguez Burbano


The search for cancer biomarkers is frequently based on comparisons between tumors and adjacent-to-tumor samples. However, even after histological confirmation of been free of cancer cells, these adjacent-to-tumor samples might harbor molecular alterations which are not sufficient to cause them to look like cancer, but can differentiate these cells from normal cells. When comparing them, potential biomarkers are missed, and mainly the opportunity of finding initial aberrations presents in both tumors and adjacent samples, but not in true normal samples from non-cancer patients, resulting in misinterpretations about the carcinogenic process. Nevertheless, collecting adjacent-to-tumor samples brings trumps to be explored. The addition of samples from non-cancer patients opens an opportunity to increase the finds of the molecular cascade of events in the carcinogenic process. Differences between normal samples and adjacent samples might represent the first steps of the carcinogenic process. Adding samples of non-cancer patients to the analysis of molecular alterations relevant to the carcinogenic process opens a new window of opportunities to the discovery of cancer biomarkers and molecular targets.

Keywords: Adjacent-to-tumor; trumps; traps