Article Abstract

Germline mutations in hereditary diffuse gastric cancer

Authors: Hao Zhang, Mengmeng Feng, Yi Feng, Zhaode Bu, Ziyu Li, Shuqin Jia, Jiafu Ji


Gastric cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Among which, about 1%–3% of gastric cancer patients were characterized by inherited gastric cancer predisposition syndromes, knowing as hereditary diffuse gastric cancer (HDGC). Studies reported that CDH1 germline mutations are the main cause of HDGC. With the help of rapid development of genetic testing technologies and data analysis tools, more and more researchers focus on seeking candidate susceptibility genes for hereditary cancer syndromes. In addition, National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) guidelines recommend that the patients of HDGC carrying CDH1 mutations should undergo prophylactic gastrectomy or routine endoscopic surveillances. Therefore, genetic counseling plays a key role in helping individuals with pathogenic mutations make appropriate risk management plans. Moreover, experienced and professional genetic counselors as well as a systematic multidisciplinary team (MDT) are also required to facilitate the development of genetic counseling and benefit pathogenic mutation carriers who are in need of regular and standardized risk management solutions. In this review, we provided an overview about the germline mutations of several genes identified in HDGC, suggesting that these genes may potentially act as susceptibility genes for this malignant cancer syndrome. Furthermore, we introduced information for prevention, diagnosis and risk management of HDGC. Investigations on key factors that may have effect on risk management decision-making and genetic data collection of more cancer syndrome family pedigrees are required for the development of HDGC therapeutic strategies.

Keywords: CDH1; CTNNA1; germline mutation; hereditary diffuse gastric cancer; genetic counseling